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Al-Fathby Saud Al-Shuraim
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    It is known that the honor of seeking knowledge depends on the branch being sought. There is no branch of knowledge more honorable or sublime than that relating to Allah and His Attributes. This branch of knowledge instills Allah’s fear and love into Muslims’ heart. Owing to the lofty status of this branch of knowledge the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to mention this honor before his Companions saying, “I am the most fearing of Allah and knowledgeable of Him than all of you do” [Bukhari].

    The virtue of this branch of knowledge, i.e. knowing the Attributes of Allah, springs from the purpose for which people are created; to worship Allah Almighty. None can worship Allah without knowing Him. The more we know Allah, the greater our worship will be. Therefore, it is necessary for whoever wishes to delve into branches of knowledge and worship Allah to ponder over His Names and Attributes. Getting acquainted with Allah’s Names and Attributes are two great branches of knowledge that draw a Muslim nearer to His Lord.

     

    To facilitate the means towards grasping this branch of knowledge, we compiled the Dictionary of the Attributes of Allah. We were concerned to include most of the authentic texts from the Qur’an, Sunnah and authentic reports of the predecessors. We mentioned the interpretations of these Attributes as stated by the scholars.    

    There are some important rules that regulate and clarify this work as follows:

    1-    Believing in the Attributes of Allah means the firm conviction in them verbally and in meaning without being occupied with how are they. The “how” must be left to Allah’s knowledge. For example, every Muslim knows that Allah has established Himself over the throne (Istiwa); however the how of it is unknown. Therefore, it is impermissible for Muslims to talk about this because it is considered lying against Allah.

    2-    It is impermissible to liken the Attributes of Allah to that of His creatures.

    3-    It is impermissible to derive names form the Attributes of Allah. For instance, we are not to derive the name al-Shai’ (i.e. the one who disposes the affairs) from the Attribute al-Mashi’a (the will of Allah).

    4-    It is impermissible to place the word ‘Abd (servant) before the Attributes of Allah. In other words, we cannot say ‘Abd al-Istiwa nor ‘Abd al-Mashi’a.

    5-    It is impermissible to call upon Allah through His Attributes, such as saying: Oh Allah’s Glory (ya ‘Izzatu Allah) Oh Allah’s wisdom (ya hikmatu Allah) Oh Allah’s Hearing (ya sam’ Allah).  

    6-    It is permissible to seek refuge in Allah through His Attributes; to say for instance: “Oh Allah! I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your wrath and I seek refuge in your forgiveness from your punishment”.

     

     

    After stating the above rules, we will start mentioning the Attributes of Allah as follows:

    1-    Al-Awalia (Eternity)

    This Attribute means that Allah is Eternal; there is no beginning to His existence. He has existed since before His creations.

    It is the first among the Attributes of Allah Almighty. It belongs to none but Him and is derived from His name al-Awal (The Eternal).

    Evidence from the Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,

    He (Allah) is the First (Eternal) and the Last, the Ascendant (al-Zahir) and the Immanent (al-Batin) [Qur’an: 57:3].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Oh Allah! You are the First (Eternal), for there is none before You” [Muslim].

     

    2-    Al-Uhadia (Oneness)

    Allah is the One with no partners; nothing is like unto Him.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allah Most High says,

    He is Allah, [who is] One” [Qur’an: 112:3].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    Abu Huraira narrated the hadith Qudsi in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said on behalf of His Lord, ‘The son of Adam has accused Me of lying, and he has no right to do so, and he insulted Me, and he has no right to do so. As for belying Me it is his saying that I will not be able to refashion him, while bringing him to existence at first is easier for Me than refashioning him. As for insulting Me, he says, ‘Allah has begotten a son,’ while I Am the One, the Ever-Sustainer” [Bukhari].

     

    3-    Al-Ihsan (Perfection)

    Allah is perfect. He is the Perfect Sustainer Who rewards those who do good deeds with better rewards; whoever does a good deed will be given a ten fold reward and whoever does an evil deed will be recompensed by its like. He perfected everything He created; humans, animals, heavens and earth which all prove His Perfection, Greatness and wisdom.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,

    Who perfected everything which He created [Qur’an 32:7].

    “And formed you and perfected your forms [Qur’an 40: 64].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “When you rule, be just; when you slaughter an animal, be kind to it for Allah is perfect and likes perfection” [al-Tabarani].

     

    4-    Al-Ihya’ (life Giver)

    This Attribute is derived from the saying of Allah Almighty,

    And He is the one who gave you life; then He causes you to die and then will [again] give you life. Indeed, mankind is ungrateful.

    It is also mentioned in the supplication of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) when waking up: “All praise be to Allah Who gave us life after our death (sleep) and unto Him is resurrection” [Bukhari].

    Imam al-Bayhaqi commented on the above saying of the Prophet in his book al-‘Itiqad (p.62): “The Giver of life (Allah) means: He is the one Who gives life to dead clot to bring out a living human being; He gives life to dead bodies on the Day of Resurrection; He revives hearts through the light of knowledge; revives the dead land by rain and gives life to plants to flourish”.

     

    5-    Al-Irada (Will)

    This Attribute means that everything that occurs in this world is by the will of Allah which controls all His creations. When Allah wills something, He just says “Be” and it is.

    Evidence from the Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,

    Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is [Qur’an 2:117].

    Indeed, Allah ordains what He intends [Qur’an 5:1].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If Allah wills to torture a group of people, He sends torture down upon them and they will be resurrected on the state upon which they died” [Muslim].

     

    6-    Istiwa’ (Allah’s Establishment over the Throne)

    This Attribute is proved to Allah through the texts of Qur’an and Sunnah.

    ‘Istiwa’ means that Allah is Exalted above His creation and has established Himself over the Throne in a manner that befitting His without likening it to His creation.

    Evidence from the Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,  

    The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established [Qur’an 20:5].

    and then established Himself above the Throne [Qur’an 7:54]. Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Verily, Allah created the heavens and earth and that in between in six days then He established Himself over the Throne” [Al-Nasa’I in al-Tafseer].

     

    7-    Al-Ilahia (Divinity)

    This Attribute is derived from the name ‘Allah’ or ‘al-Ilah’ (Diety). These two names are mentioned many times in the texts of Qur’an and Sunnah. Divinity or Uluhiya [Lordship] means that Allah deserves to be worshiped alone with no partner, to none but Him we should submit ourselves and He is the Exalted Lord in our hearts.

    Evidence from the Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,

    And He is Allah; there is no deity except Him [Qur’an 28:70].

     

    8-    Al-Intiqam (the Avenger)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Avenger Who victoriously prevails over and punishes the disbelievers, transgressor and tyrants. Intiqam proves the justice of Allah who punishes the wrong doers either in this world or in the hereafter according to His wisdom.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Indeed We, from the criminals, will take retribution [Qur’an 32:22]. And never think that Allah is unaware of what the wrongdoers do. He only delays them for a Day when eyes will stare [in horror] [Qur’an 14: 42].

    9-    Al-Batinya (the Immanent)

    This Attribute means that Allah is invisible to all His creatures in this world. This Attribute is derived from Allah’s name Al-Batin (the Immanent).

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says,  

    He (Allah) is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Immanent [Qur’an 57:3].

    Evidence from Suunah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to supplicate Allah by saying, “O Allah! You are the First “

    14- Al-Basar (Seeing)

    This Attribute is derived from Allah’s Name “Al-Baseer” (The All- Seeing). This Attribute means that Allah sees everything and nothing is concealed from Him.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says:

    There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seeing[Qur’an 42:11]. 

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “O people! Take it easy! You are not calling upon One Who is deaf or absent; you are calling upon One Who is All-Hearing and All-Seeing”. [Bukhari]

     

    15- Al-Baqa’ (Immortality)

    This Attribute means that Allah is immortal and above change. This Attribute is derived from the words of Allah Almighty:

    And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever[Qur’an 55: 27].  

     

    16- Al-Tashri’ (Allah is the Legislator)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the One Who legislates the rulings for people. He clarifies for them what is lawful, so that they follow it; what it is prohibited, so that they refrain from it; and what is permissible, so that they have the choice whether or not to do it.

    This Attribute is derived from His words:

     He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islâm) which He ordained for Nûh (Noah), and that which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad)[Qur’an 42: 13]. 

     

    17- Al-Taqdeem and al-Ta’kheer (Allah is the Expediter and Delayer)

    These two Attributes of Allah means that Allah perfectly disposes the affairs of His servants. He brings forward what He wishes out of His Generosity and delays what He wishes out of His justice. He raises the rank and humiliates whom He wishes and nothing prevents His will.

    These two Attributes are derived from the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “O Allah, forgive my past and future sins, what I have done secretly and openly, for You are the One Who brings (some people) forward [Al-Muqadim] and puts (others) back [Al-Mu’akhir], and You are able to do all things)”. [Bukhari and Muslim]

     

    18- Al-Tawb (Allah is the The Superbly Relenting)

    This Attribute is derived from the Name of Allah (Al-Tawab). It means that Allah is the One Who guides His servants to repentance and forsake sins by His grace, accept it, reward them and replace their sins with good deeds.

     

     

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allah Almighty says:

    Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful [Qur’an 2:37].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever repents before the sun rises in the West, Allah will accept his repentance” [Muslim]. 

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “If the son of Adam had a valley full of gold, he would desire to have two. Nothing can fill his mouth except the earth (of the grave). Verily, Allah turns with mercy to him who turns to Him in repentance” [Bukhari and Muslim].  

     

    19- Al-Jabarut(The Compeller)

    This Attribute is derived from the Name of Allah (Al-Jabbar).

    It means that Allah is The Most High, The Superb Vanquisher. Allah is above everything and there is nothing above Him. He is the One who controls His servants by His Command and none can ever flee from His power. He is the Giver and Taker of life, The Sustainer Who provides or prevents; the One Who honors and humiliates. Allah does what He wants in His servants, none can prevent or contradict His command and decree. 

     

     

     

     

    Evidence from Qur’an

     the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme[Qur’an 59: 23].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Glory be to Allah, the Compeller, The Sovereign, the Most High and Great” [Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i]. 

     

    20- Al-Jalal (The Divine Majesty)

    This Attribute means that to Allah belong the entire Majesty, Greatness, Honor and Sovereignty.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever[Qur’an 55: 27].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said in hadith Qudsi: “Allah Almighty says: By My Honor, Majesty, Glory and Greatness, I will get out from Hellfire those who said: la illaha illa Allah (there is no god to be worshiped except Allah)” [Bukhari].

     

    21- AL-Jamal (The Divine Beauty)

    This Attribute means that the entire Beauty belongs to Allah and nothing is like Him. Beauty is from Him and to Him. Even the inhabitants of paradise -despite what they will have of everlasting ease and bounties, happiness and pleasure that cannot be measured – upon seeing the face of their Lord and enjoying His beauty, they will forget all that they have been granted of bounties and all that they have of happiness will amount to nothing and they will desire to forever remain in that state (i.e. of looking at Allah). They will be provided from His Beauty and Light that which adds to their beauty. Their hearts will be perpetually yearning and longing for the sight of their Lord. They will be overjoyed with such joy that will cause the hearts to nearly fly.

    Evidence from Sunnah

    This Attribute is derived from the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “Verily Allah is Beautiful and He loves beauty” [Muslim].

     

    22- Al-Jud (The Ever-Generous)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Ever-Generous, the Lord of beneficence Whose bounties and grace encompasses all that exists.

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah is the Ever-Generous and He loves Generosity” [At-Termdhi]. 

    23- Al-Hukm (Divine Judgment)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Only Legislator who decrees what is lawful [halal] or unlawful [haram]. People must obey and follow His commands by observing what is lawful and reframing from what is unlawful.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Shall I seek a judge other than Allâh[Qur’an6:114].

     So be patient until Allâh judges between us, and He is the Best of judges [Qur’an 7: 87].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i reported that when Hani’ ibn Yazeed (may Allah be pleased with him) came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) with his people, the Prophet heard them calling him “Abu al-Hakam” “the Judge”. Thereupon, the Prophet called upon him and said: “Verily, Allah is the Judge and to Him belongs the Judgment).

     

    24- Al-Hub (Love)

    This Attribute means that Allah loves His sincere servants [‘Awliya], engulfs them with His mercy and grace and bestows His variant bounties and blessings upon them.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    and do good. Truly, Allâh loves Al-Muhsinûn(the good-doers) [Qur’an 2:195].

    Allâh will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him[Qur’an 5: 54].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said on the day of the battle of Khaybar: “verily, I will give the banner tomorrow to a man to whom Allah will grant victory; he loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him” [Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim].

    25Al-Haseeb (The Ever-Reckoner)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Only One Who perfectly knows the amounts and numbers of things; He knows exactly the amount of sands, the size of seas and oceans; reckons the deeds of His servants and nothing skips His knowledge.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allâh is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all things[Qur’an 4: 86].  

     

    Evidence from Sunnah

    Abu Bakra (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If it is indispensable for anyone of you to praise someone, then he should say, ‘I think that he is so-and-so,” if he really thinks that he is such. Allah is the One Who will take his accounts (as He knows his reality) and no-one can sanctify anybody before Allah” [Bukhari and Muslim].

    26) Al-Hifz (Divine Protection)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Ever-Protector of the Heaves, Earth and all that exist in them; so that they never perish. He is the One Who protects His servants from misfortunes and evils; reckon His servants deeds and sayings; He knows their intentions; His knowledge encompasses everything; He preserves His sincere servants from sins and Satan’s plots, so that they are saved from his evils and temptations.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    This Attribute of Allah is derived from His Names [Al-Hafeez] and [Al-Hafiz].

    Surely, my Lord is Guardian over all things [Qur’an 11:57].

    But Allâh is the Best to guard, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy[Qur’an 12: 64].  

    Evidence form Sunnah

    Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Be mindful of Allah, so that He will protect you” [Recorded by At-Termdhi].  

     

     

    27) Al-Ihtifa’ (Divine Graciousness)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Ever Generous; Gracious Who fulfills His servants needs.

    This Attribute is mentioned in the following words of Allah:    

    Ibrâhim (Abraham) said: “Peace be on you! I will ask Forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily! He is unto me, Ever Most Gracious [Qur’an 19: 47)

    28) Al-Haqq (The Truth)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the manifest Truth that can never be denied. It is incumbent upon everyone to affirm and admit the existence of the Creator since everything in this universe counts as a manifest evidence on His existence.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    That is because Allâh, He is the Truth [Qur’an 22: 6]. 

     Then High above all be Allâh, the True King[Qur’an 20: 114].   

    Evidence from Sunnah

    The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) said: “O Allah! You are the Truth and Your words are the Truth” [Bukhari]. 

     

     

     

     

    28) Al-Hikma (The Divine Wisdom)

    This Attribute means that to Allah belong all the means of power, prevention, knowledge and perfection. Allah is the Omnipotent; Sovereign Whose Knowledge encompasses everything. He perfectly created and originated everything that exists.

    Evidence from Qur’an

    Allâh is All­-Knower, All­-Wise[Qur’an 4: 26].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    Mus’ab ibn Sa’ad narrated through his father and said: a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said to him: Teach me some words to say. The Prophet replied: “Say: There is no god to be worshipped but Allah Who has no partner. Allah is the Greatest, All and abundant praise be to Him, Glory be to Allah the Lord of the universe and there is no power nor might except in Allah the All-Sovereign, the All-Wise” [Muslim]. 

    29)Al-Hilm (Divine Forbearance)

    This Attribute means that Allah is the Ever-Forgiver, the Ever-Patience Who possess the mighty and power to send His wrath upon the sinners. The attribute if Hilm ‘forbearance’ is only attributed to Allah since is forgives while having the power to punish.

     

     

     

    Evidence from Qur’an  

    And Allâh is Rich (Free of all wants) and He is Most-Forbearing[Qur’an 2:263].   

    Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-­Forgiving[Qur’an 35:41].

    Evidence from Sunnah

    Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to supplicate Allah be saying: there is no god but Allah, the Great, the ever-Forbearance, there is no god but Allah, the Great lord of the throne” [Bukhari and Muslim].knowing Alla.com

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