AL-QURAN
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Al-Fathby Saud Al-Shuraim
وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّتِي نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنْكَاثًا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلًا بَيْنَكُمْ أَنْ تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَىٰ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا يَبْلُوكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهِ ۚ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ
And do not be like her who untwists her yarn having spun it into durable thread. Do not use your oaths deceitfully because one party has ascendency over you. God surely tries you in this way: He will make it clear to you on the Day of Resurrection what you were differing about.

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On the authority of ʽAbdullāh, the son of ʽUmar bin al-Khaṭṭāb that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم  said:”I have been ordered to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah and perform the prayers and give the zakāh. If they do that, they are protected from me regarding their blood and their properties unless by the right of Islam, and their account will be with Allah, the Exalted.”(Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim)Jihād is one of the most important religious duties in Islam and remains so until the Day of Judgement. It is declared by the head of an Islamic state and supported by the community as a whole. It is not aimed at forcing belief on any people, for the Qur’ān ِِّThere shall be no compulsion in religion,”46 i.e., in the acceptance of religion. Rather, its purpose is the removal of obstacles to the propagation of Islam and to free thought and choice in the matter, and then the establishment of a force sufficient to uphold this freedom, insure justice and protect Muslims from persecution and oppression.When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was commanded by Allah to fight following the hijrah (emigration to al-Madinah) and establishment of the state, Muslims were being persecuted within the Arabian peninsula by the Quraysh and outside its borders by the Persian and Byzantine establishments. Thus, he was to first liberate the Muslims by subduing opposition among the Arabs, then to continue jihād wherever Islam was opposed until men could worship Allah freely and invite others to Islam. The “people”to be fought are those who either attack or persecute Muslims and those who strive to prevent the natural spread of Islam through peaceful means, i.e., through da`wah (invitation) and teaching. They may also include apostates, although this category is usually considered separately under “the right of Islam.” It is known that the Messenger of Allah  accepted as a Muslim anyone who pronounced the shahādah and regarded his declaration of faith adequate to protect him from being harmed. He required no immediate proof of the person’s sincerity and thus strongly rebuked Usāmah bin Zayd for killing a man whom he assumed had said “Lā illāh ill-Allāh” only to save himself.
Once a person enters Islam, however, he is expected to fulfill its obligations. A Muslim may be fought by the state for refusing to pray or to give zakāh (unlike fasting and ḥajj), this having been understood by the ṣaḥābah as a part of the “right of Islam.” Hence, with the concurrence of other eminent ṣaḥābah, Abū Bakr fought the 46 Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:256.

On the authority of Abū Ruqayyah, Tameem bin Aus ad-Dāri, that the Prophet(صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:”Religion is sincerity.” 41 We said, “To whom?” He said, “To Allah and to His Book, to His Messenger, and to the leaders of Muslims and their common people.”(Narrated by Muslim)”Religion is sincerity” has been interpreted by some to mean that they are one in the same, i.e., that sincerity, as described in this ḥadīth, may be called religion. But the consensus among scholars is that it is like the Prophet’s statement, “The ḥajj is `Arafah,”meaning that the latter is the larger or most important part of the former. The following examples have been given for the various forms of sincerity mentioned by Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم):1) To Allah (subḥānahu wa taʽālā): Belief in Him, rejection of shirk42 and of distortions concerning His attributes, describing Him with all the attributes of perfection and majesty and disassociating Him from any imperfection or similarity to His creation,obedience to Him and avoidance of disobedience, striving against those who oppose belief in Him or advocate shirk, loving because of Him and hating because
of Him, recognition of and gratitude for His favors, purity of intention in every matter, inviting others to all of the aforementioned and encouraging it while being courteous to all people.43

 

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On the authority of Abū `Abdullāh, an-Nuʽmān bin Basheer, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah ( say: “The lawful is clear, and the unlawful is clear, and between the two of them are doubtful matters about which many people do not know. So he who avoids doubtful matters has sought to clear himself in regard to his religion and his honor, but he who falls into doubtful matters [then ] falls into the unlawful, like the shepherd who pastures around a private area, all but grazing therein. Undoubtedly, every sovereign has private property, and indeed, the private property of Allah is His prohibited matters. Undoubtedly, within the body is a morsel of flesh which, when it is good, the whole body is good; but when it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Indeed, it is the heart.” (Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim)The ḥadīth presents certain facts and a directive that is fundamental to the religion. First, the Prophet ( confirmed that what is purely ḥalāl (lawful) is recognized, and what is purely ḥarām (unlawful) has been mentioned distinctly by Allah, either in the Qur’ān or through His Messenger (  As He stated: “Allah makes clear to you [His law] lest you go astray.”37 These rulings are not subject to doubt and are generally known. But other matters are not widely known by the people or even agreed upon by the scholars, having been subject to differing interpretations and opinions. These “doubtful matters,” however, are not doubtful in the absolute sense, as shown by the words “which many people do not know.” Thus, it is understood that there are some scholars who do know the truth about each of these matters and that their reasoning is correct. For those who are uncertain, either due to doubtful evidence or confusion about whether or not a ruling applies to a particular situation, the Prophet ( advised prudence and caution, which is the essence of taqwā, 38 pointing out that it is preferable to avoid that whose permissibility is doubtful. Two reasons are cited by scholars: First, that the matter in doubt could be a means leading to what is clearly ḥarām, so that the person, when indulging himself, gradually lets down his guard and drifts into what is beyond doubt. And second, that one who embarks on what is doubtful to him might possibly be doing that which is actually unlawful a nd has been declared so by those who are knowledgeable about the matter.39.Thus, whoever avoids a matter about which 37 Sūrah an-Nisaa’, 4:176.38 See footnote no. 16 to Ḥadīth No. 2.39.

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On the authority of the Mother of the Believers, Umm `Abdullāh, ʽĀ’ishah, who said: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:”He who innovates something in this matter of ours that is not a part of it – it will be rejected.”(Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim)In one version by Muslim it says:”He who does a deed not in accordance with our matter – it will be rejected.”Here is one of the comprehensive statements of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which is a basis for several fundamental principles. It provides a criterion for evaluation of the visible aspects of one’s deeds,complementing the ḥadīth, “Deeds are only by intention,” which deals with the unapparent aspect. Combining the import of both, scholars have concluded that there are two conditions for the acceptability of any deed by Allah (subḥānahu wa ta`ālā): sincerity of intention (ikhlās), i.e., it must be done for Allah alone, and correctness (ṣawāb), i.e., it must be done in the way ordained by Him in the Qur’ān and sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).The ḥadīth warns against innovation (bidʽah)31 in all matters of religion. In this context the word “matter” (amr) carries the meaning of religious practice and law.”Rejected” means that the deed is unacceptable to Allah and so will not be rewarded. It is a clear prohibition against making any changes in or additions to the religion and warns those sects differing with Ahl as-Sunnah of their error, for anything claimed to be a valid religious practice must be based upon a proof from the Qur’ān or the sunnah.
That is because Allah (subḥānahu wa taʽālā) has completed and perfected the religion (Islam) which He ordained for mankind as stated in Sūrah al-Mā’idah,32 and He has not omitted from it anything beneficial to man. One who asserts otherwise by insistence on some alternative way places himself in danger of falling into disbelief through his contradiction of the Qur’ān and refusal of obedience to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) elaborated further when he said, “Indeed, the best statement is the Book of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muḥammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم). And the worst of matters are the newly devised ones, and every innovation is misguidance.”33Again, this refers to matters of religion and not those of worldly life.The deeds to be assessed by this criterion fall into two categories: those of individual worship, which have been specified and precisely defined by Allah and His 31 For an explanation of the term, see Ḥadīth No. 28.32 Sūrah al-Mā’idah, 5:3.33 Narrated by Muslim.14Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and those relating to dealings with one’s fellow human beings. Continue reading


On the authority of Abū ʽAbdur-Raḥmān, ʽAbdullāh bin Masʽūd, who said: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and he is the truthful, the believed,23 narrated to us:”Indeed, the creation of one of you is brought together in his mother’s belly for forty days in the form of a zygote, then he is a clinging clot for a like period,then a morsel of flesh for a like period, then there is sent to him the angel who blows the [human] soul into him and is commanded about four matters:24 to write down his provision, his life span, his actions, and [whether he will be]unhappy or happy. And by Allah, other than whom there is no deity, indeed,one of you does the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is not between him and it except an arm’s length, but the decree overtakes him so he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it. And indeed, one of you does the deeds of the people of the Fire until there is not between him and it except an arm’s length, but the decree overtakes him so he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it.”(Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim)This ḥadīth deals with the condition of man from beginning to end and his states
from before his entrance into the world to after his departure from it. It also confirms the concept of qadar (decree or predestination).The first stages of development mentioned correspond to those given in the Qur’ān. The bringing together or gathering of one’s creation in his mother’s belly may refer to the combining of the male and female substance within the womb or to the
formation of the embryo; however, most scholars prefer the view that although its beginnings may be observed in the second stage, the actual formation takes place during the third stage of development when the fetus resembles a “chewed lump of flesh.”25 At the end of the three 40 day periods, i.e., after about four months, a human soul is bestowed upon the fetus through an angel who has the additional duty of recording what Allah (subḥānahu wa taʽālā) has predestined for that individual.26 23 Believed as to what came to him  of divine revelation.24 Literally, “words.”
25 For a detailed study, see Introduction to Embryology by Dr. Keith Moore (1988).26 Although some scholars have permitted a woman to abort an embryo before it is endowed with the human soul, others reject this view, stating that it remains a crime against a living being that has already been conceived and possibly formed and cannot be compared to preventative measures
where a child has not been conceived.11Specifically, four aspects are recorded concerning his destiny:1) His provision (rizq), i.e., the extent of his share or allotted portion of sustenance and other blessings from Allah, both material and otherwise 2) His life span (ajal), i.e., Continue reading

On the authority of Abū ʽAbdur-Raḥmān, ʽAbdullāh bin Masʽūd, who said:  TheMessenger of Allah , and he is the truthful, the believed, narrated to us:”Indeed, the creation of one of you is brought together in his mother’s belly for

forty days in the form of a zygote, then he is a clinging clot for a like period, then a morsel of flesh for a like period, then there is sent to him the angel who blows the [human] soul into him and is commanded about four matters:  to write  down  his  provision,  his  life  span,  his  actions,  and  [whether  he  will  be] unhappy or happy.  And by Allah, other than whom there is no deity, indeed, one of you does the deeds of the people of Paradise  until there is not between him and it xcept an arm’s length, but the decree overtakes him so he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it.  And  indeed, one of you does the deeds of the people of the Fire until there is not between him and it except an arm’s length, but the decree overtakes him so he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it.” (Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim) Continue reading

On the authority of Abū ʽAbdur-Raḥmān, ʽAbdullāh, son of ʽUmar bin al-Khaṭṭāb,who said:  I heard the Messenger of Allah () say: “Islam has been built on five:  testifying that there is no deity but Allah and that Muḥammad  is  the  Messenger  of  Allah,  the  establishme nt  of  prayer,  giving zakāh, making the pilgrimage to the House, and fast ing Ramadhān.”(Narrated by al-Bukhāri and Muslim) .

    The  pillars  of  Islam  were  enumerated  in  the  previous  ḥadīth  in  comparison  with those of īmān  in order to define and distinguish each.  This ḥad īth presents them in another light.  What is emphasized here is that these five “pillars,” as they have been called, are indeed the basis of Islam without which  the religion cannot stand, just as abuilding cannot stand without strong supports rooted in a foundation.  This does not mean,  however,  that  Islam  is  limited  to  these  five –  far  from  it.    For  obedience  in everything that Allah has ordained is included in Islam and is, in fact, essential for its completion and perfection.  Every Muslim will be judged in the Hereafter according to his efforts to obey every

order and avoid every prohibition. What is meant here is simply that all of the other  obligations  are  what   completes Islam and makes it good (for what use is a building  without walls, a roof, doors and windows, interior furnishings, etc.?), while the main pillars are the minimum that can be called “Islam.”  Hence, the Prophet  did not say that these five pillars are Islam but that Islam is built upon them; i.e., they must be present before Islam can be completed.  And since,  as  noted  previously,  the  deeds  of  Islam  are principally  actions  which  are observable (those of the tongue and the body), a person is considered a Muslim as long as the basic “pillars” are present. The  first  of  them  is shahādah or  testimony  that  there  is  no  deity,  i.e.,  nothing worthy of worship except Allah (subḥānahu wa taʽālā) and that Muḥammad is His messenger, i.e., the spokesman for Allah by His authority.  For this reason Allah, in the Qur’ān, has made obedience to the Prophet  incumbent on all Muslims. Testifying requires that one be truthful and sincere, and it includes two aspects:1)recognition and admission within the self.2)bearing witness of the fact before others, i.e., asserting one’s conviction, which is then proven by his fulfillment of the other four requirements “No deity but Allah” involves the question of divine authority – submission and willing acceptance of the Creator’s right to govern creation.Shahādah  is obviously the first building block of Islam without which there can be no Islam. Scholars’ views differ over the remaining four pillars – whether or not the omission of one of them removes one from the ranks of Muslim.  Continue reading

Also on the authority of `Umar, who said:[One day] while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (), a man came over to us whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black; no signs of travel were seen on him, but none of us knew him. He came and sat down opposite the Prophet () and rested his knees against his, placing the palms of his hands on his thighs. He said, “O Muḥammad , inform me about Islam.” The Messenger of Allah () said, “Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish prayer, to give zakāh, to fast Ramadhān, and to make the pilgrimage to the House 6 if you are able to do so.” He said, “You have spoken the truth,” and we wondered at his asking him and confirming it. He said, “Then inform me about īmān.”7 He said, “It is to believe in Allah, His angels,His books,His messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in predestination, both them good and the evil thereof.” He said, “You have spoken the truth.” He said,”Then inform me about iḥsān.”8 He said, “It is to worship Allah as though you see Him; if you do not see Him, indeed, He sees you.” He said, “Then inform me about the Hour.”9 He said, “The one questioned about it knows no more than the questioner.” He said, “Then inform me of its signs.” He said, “That the slave-woman will give birth to her mistress and that you will see Continue reading

Yahya ibn Ya`mar, may Allaah have mercy on him,said:“The first individual to speak regarding predestination was Ma`bad Al-Juhani. So, I went with Humayd ibn `Abd Ar-Rahmaan Al-Himyari to make Hajj or `Umrah, and we said: „If we come across anyone from the Companions of Allaah‟s Messenger, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, we should ask about what those people say regarding predestination. We were given divine assistance in meeting `Abdullaah ibn`Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him,inside the mosque. So, we surrounded him, one of us to his
right, and the other to his left. I felt that my companion would entrust me to speak, so I said: „O Abu `Abd Ar-Rahmaan, in our area, there are people who read the Qur‟aan but have no nowledge.‟ He continued to mention some of their descriptions, and how they say there is no predestination and that everything is spontaneous. He said:„If you meet them, then inform them that I am free of them,and that they are free from me. By the One who `Abdullaah ibn `Umar swears by, if one of them had a mountain of gold,as big as Uhud, and they spend it for the Sake of Allaah, it would not be accepted until they accept predestination.My father, `Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, informed me, saying: „While we were sitting with

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Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that theMessenger of Allaah, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said:“Actions are based on intentions, and everyone will have what they have intended. Whoever‟s migration was to Allaahand His Messenger, then their migration is to Allaah and HisMessenger, but whoever‟s migration was for some parts of worldly life that they wished to acquire, or for a woman to marry, then their migration was for whatever they migrated for.”1This is a narration that only Yahya ibn Sa`eed Al-Ansaari, may Allaah have mercy on him, reported fromMuhammad ibnIbraaheem At-Taymi, may Allaah have mercy on him, who reported by `Alqamah ibn Waqqaas Al-Laythi, may Allaah have mercy on him, who reported from `Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him. There is no other authentic chain of narration for this Hadeeth besides this one, as `Ali ibn Al-Madeeni, may Allaah have mercy on him,and others tated. Al-Khattaabi, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “I do not know of a difference of opinion among the scholars of Hadeeth regarding this matter, even though it has been reported via Abu Sa`eed and others.”

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