Breathing, eating, walking, etc, are very natural human functions. But most people do not think about how these basic actions take place. For example, when you eat a fruit, you do not contemplate on how it will be made useful to your body. The only thing on your mind is eating a satisfying meal; at the same time, your body is involved in extremely detailed processes unimaginable to you in order to make this meal a health-giving thing.
The digestive system where these detailed processes take place starts to function as soon as a piece of food is taken into the mouth. Being involved in the system right at the outset, the saliva wets the food and helps it to be ground by the teeth and to slide down the esophagus.
The esophagus transports the food to the stomach where a perfect balance is at work. Here, the hydrochloric acid present in the stomach digests the food. This acid is so strong that it has the capacity to dissolve not only the food but also the stomach walls. Of course, such a flaw is not permitted in this perfect system. A secretion called mucus, which is secreted during digestion, covers all the walls of the stomach and provides a perfect protection against the destructive effect of the hydrochloric acid. Thus the stomach is prevented from consuming itself.
The point that deserves attention here is that evolution can by no means explain the system briefly summarized above. Evolution maintains that today’s complex organisms have evolved from primitive cellular forms by the gradual accumulation of small structural changes. However, as stated clearly, the system in the stomach could in no way have been formed step by step. The absence of even one factor would bring about the death of the organism.
When food is received into the stomach, the ability of the gastric juices to break down food is effectuated as a result of a series of chemical changes. Now, imagine a living being in the so-called evolutionary process in whose body such a planned chemical transformation is not complete. This living being, unable to develop this ability autonomously, would not be able to digest the food it ate and would starve to death with an undigested mass of food in its stomach.
In addition, during the secretion of this dissolving acid, the stomach walls simultaneously have to produce the secretion called mucus. Otherwise, the acid in the stomach would destroy the stomach. Therefore, in order for life to continue, the stomach must secrete both fluids (acid and mucus) at the same time. This shows it was not a step-by-step coincidental evolution that must, in effect, have been at work, but rather a conscious creation with all its systems intact.
What all this shows is that the human body resembles a huge factory made up of many small machines that work together in perfect harmony. Just as all factories have a designer, an engineer and a planner, the human body has an “Exalted Creator.”
“Say: ‘Praise be to God. He will show you His Signs and you will recognize them. Your Lord is not heedless of anything you do.’” (Quran 27:93)
“This is a communication to be transmitted to mankind so that they can be warned by it and so that they will know that He is One God and so that people of intelligence will pay heed.” (Quran 14:52)
In many other verses, God emphasizes that one of the most crucial purposes of the Quran’s revelation is to invite people to ponder.
In the Quran, God invites people to reject blindly accepting the beliefs and values society imposes on them and to ponder by pushing aside all the prejudices, taboos and constraints on their minds.
Man must think on how he came into being, what the purpose of his life is, why he will die and what awaits him after death. He must question how he, himself, and the whole universe came into existence and how they continue to exist. While doing this, he must relieve himself of all constraints and prejudices.
By thinking while isolating his conscience from all social, ideological and psychological obligations, the person should eventually perceive that the entire universe, including himself, is created by a superior power. Even when he examines his own body or any other thing in nature, he will see an impressive harmony, plan and wisdom at work within its design.
Concerning this point again, the Quran guides man. In the Quran, God guides us as to what we should reflect on and investigate. With the methods of reflection given in the Quran, he who has faith in God will better perceive God’s perfection, eternal wisdom, knowledge and power in His creation. When a believing person starts to think in the way shown in the Quran, he soon realizes that the whole universe is a sign of God’s power and art, and that, “nature is a work of art, not the artist itself”. Every work of art exhibits the exceptional skills of the one who has made it and conveys his messages.
In the Quran, people are summoned to contemplate numerous events and objects that clearly testify to the existence and uniqueness of God and His attributes. In the Quran, all these beings that bear witness are designated as “signs”, meaning “tested evidence, absolute knowledge and expression of truth”. Therefore, the signs of God comprise all the beings in the universe in that they disclose and communicate the being and attributes of God. Those who can observe and remember will see that the entire universe is entirely composed of the signs of God.
This, indeed, is the responsibility of mankind: to be able to see the signs of God. Thus, such a person will come to know the Creator who created him and all other things, draw closer to Him, discover the meaning of his existence and his life and so prosper.
Each thing, the breath a human takes; political and social developments; the cosmic harmony in the universe; the atom, which is one of the smallest pieces of matter, is each a sign of God, and they all operate under His control and knowledge, abiding by His laws. Recognizing and knowing the signs of God calls for personal effort. One will recognize and know the signs of God in accordance with his own wisdom and conscience.
Undoubtedly, some guidelines may also help. As the first step, one can investigate certain points stressed in the Quran in order to acquire the mentality that perceives the whole universe as an articulation of the things created by God.
God’s signs in nature are emphasized in a chapter called “The Bee”:
“It is He who sends down water from the sky. From it you drink and from it come the shrubs among which you graze your herds. And by it He makes crops grow for you and olives and dates and grapes and fruit of every kind. Therein is certainly a sign in that for people who reflect. He has made the night and the day subservient to you, and the sun, the moon and the stars, all subject to His command. Therein are certainly signs in that for people who use their intellect. And also, the things of varying colors He has created for you in the earth. There is certainly a sign in that for people who pay heed. It is He who made the sea subservient to you so that you can eat fresh flesh from it and bring out from it ornaments to wear. And you see the ships cleaving through it so that you can seek His bounty, and so that perhaps you may show thanks. He cast firmly embedded mountains on the earth so it would not move under you, and rivers, pathways, and landmarks so that perhaps you might be guided. And they are guided by the stars. Is He Who creates like him who does not create? O will you not pay heed?”(Quran 16:10-17)
In the Quran, God invites men of understanding to think about the issues which other people overlook or just dismiss using such barren terms as “evolution”, “coincidence”, or “a miracle of nature”.
In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people of intelligence: those who remember God standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth:
“Our Lord, You did not create this for nothing. Glory be to You! So guard us from the punishment of the Fire.” (Quran 3:191)
As we see in these verses, people of understanding see the signs of God and try to comprehend His eternal knowledge, power and art by remembering and reflecting on them, for God’s knowledge is limitless, and His act of creating flawless.For men of understanding, everything around them is a sign of this creation.
The earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly and continuously, without pause. When compared to other planets, it is evident that in all its aspects the earth is specially designed for human life. Built on delicate balances, life prevails in every spot of this planet, from the atmosphere to the depths of the earth.
Exploring only a few of the millions of these delicate balances would be sufficient to show that the world we live in is specially designed for us.
One of the most important balances in our planet is revealed in the atmosphere that surrounds us. The atmosphere of the earth holds the most appropriate gasses in the most appropriate ratio needed for the survival not only of human beings, but also of all the living beings on the earth.
The 77% of nitrogen, 21% of oxygen and 1% of carbon dioxide as well as other gasses readily available in the atmosphere represent the ideal figures necessary for the survival of living beings. Oxygen, a gas that is vital for living beings, helps to burn up food and convert it into energy in our bodies.
If the oxygen quantity in the atmosphere were greater than 21%, the cells in our body would soon start to suffer great damage. The vegetation and hydrocarbon molecules needed for life would also be destroyed. If this quantity were less, then this would cause difficulties in our respiration, and the food we eat would not be converted into energy. Therefore, the 21% of oxygen in the atmosphere is the most ideal quantity determined for life.
No less than oxygen, other gasses like nitrogen and carbon dioxide are also arranged in the ideal quantity for the needs of living beings and the continuity of life. The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere has the ideal ratio to balance the harmful and burning effects of oxygen. This ratio represents the most appropriate value required for photosynthesis, which is essential for life’s energy supply on the earth. Moreover, the amount of carbon dioxide has the most appropriate value needed to maintain the stability of the surface temperature of the earth and to prevent heat loss especially at night time. This gas, comprising 1% of the atmosphere, covers the earth like a quilt and prevents the loss of heat to space. If this amount were greater, the temperature of the earth would increase excessively, causing climatic instability and posing a serious threat to the living beings.
These proportions remain constant thanks to a perfect system. The vegetation covering the earth converts carbon dioxide to oxygen, producing 190 billion tons of oxygen every day. The proportion of other gasses is always kept constant on the earth by the help of interconnected complex systems. Life is thus sustained.
In addition to the establishment of the ideal gas mixture required for life on earth, the mechanisms needed to preserve and maintain this order are created alongside with it. Any break in the balance, though instantaneous, or any change in the ratios even for a very short time period, would mean the total destruction of life. Yet, this does not happen. The formation of these gasses in the atmosphere just in the amount people need, and the constant preservation of these ratios indicate a planned creation.
At the same time, the earth has the ideal size in terms of magnitude to possess an atmosphere. If the mass of the earth were a little less, then its gravitational force would be insufficient and the atmosphere would be dispersed into space. If its mass were a little greater, then the gravitational force would be too much and the earth would absorb all gasses in the atmosphere. There is an incredibly high number of conditions required for the formation of an atmosphere such as the one our world currently has and all of these conditions should exist altogether to be able to talk of life.
The creation of these delicate proportions and balances in the sky is mentioned in the Quran:
“He erected heaven and established the balance.” (Quran 55:7)
The majority of people spend their lives without being aware of the delicate balances and subtle adjustments in the gas composition of the atmosphere, the distance of the world from the sun or the movements of planets. They are ignorant of the great significance of these balances and adjustments to their own lives. However, even a minor deviation in any one of these arrangements would create very severe problems regarding the existence and survival of humankind.
There are many other balances established on earth for the continuity of life:
For instance, if the surface gravity were stronger than its current value, the atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane gasses, which would mean the end of life. If it were weaker, the planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water, and life on earth would be impossible.
The thickness of the earth’s crust constitutes another one of the delicate balances in the earth. If the earth’s crust were thicker, too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust and this would have severe effects on human life.
If the opposite were true, that is, if the earth’s crust were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great to permit life on earth.
Another crucial balance for human life is the ozone level in the atmosphere. If it were greater than its current value, the surface temperatures would be too low. If it were less, surface temperatures would be too high, and there would be too much ultraviolet radiation at the surface.
In fact, the absence of even a single one of these balances would herald the end to life on earth. However, God has created the universe with infinite wisdom and power and designed the earth especially for human life. Despite this fact, the majority of people lead their lives in total ignorance of these events. In the Quran, God reminds people of His:
“(God) makes night merge into day and day merge into night, and He has made the sun and moon subservient, each one running until a specified time. That is God, your Lord. The Kingdom is His. Those you call on besides Him have no power over even the smallest speck.” (Quran 35:13)
It is sufficient to look at millions of dead planets in space in order to understand that the delicate balances required for life on earth is not a result of random coincidences. The conditions essential for life are too complicated to have been formed “on their own” and at random, and these conditions are specially created for life alone.
These balances we have briefly described so far are only a few of the millions of intricate, interrelated balances and orders established so that people can live in peace and safety on the earth.
Examining only a part of the balances and harmony on the earth is enough to comprehend the superior being of God and grasp the existence of a planned creation in every detail of the universe. It is no doubt impossible for a person or any other living being to build such an enormous balance and order. Nor are the components of this order such as atoms, elements, molecules, and gasses, capable of establishing an order based on such intricate and extremely delicate calculations and measurements, and such fine tunings. This is because activities like planning, ordering, arranging, calculating, and proportioning can only be realized by beings that possess wisdom, knowledge and power. The Exalted Being Who orders, plans and balances the entire universe to be fit for life of human beings on a planet like earth and Who sustains it with dramatically delicate measures and balances is God, Who has Infinite Wisdom, Knowledge and Power.
In the Quran, it is stated that those people who are able to realize these facts are the only “people with intelligence”:
“Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people with intelligence: those who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: [They say] ‘Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire.” (Quran 3:190-191).
The recent completion of the human gene map within the scope of the Human Genome Project is an important scientific improvement. However, some results of this project are being distorted in some evolutionist publications. It is claimed that the genes of chimpanzees are 98% similar to human genes, and this is presented as evidence for the claim that apes are close to humans, and therefore logical ancestors of humans, as claimed by Darwin’s theory of evolution. The argument is misleading.
The claim of 98% similarity is deceptive. To claim that the genetic make-up of man and chimpanzee bear 98% similarity to each other, the genome of the chimpanzee also has to be mapped just as that of man and the two have to be compared. No such completed research for the chimpanzee has been done yet.
This claimed similarity is an exaggerated generalization grounded in the similarity in the amino acid sequences of some 30-40 basic proteins present in man and chimpanzee. A sequence analysis has been made with a method named “DNA hybridization” on the DNA sequences that are correlated with these proteins and only those limited number of proteins have been compared. However there are about hundred thousand genes, and therefore 100,000 proteins coded by these genes in humans. The claim that all the genes of man and ape are 98% similar is based on the similarity in 40 out of 100,000 proteins!
Moreover, the above mentioned basic proteins are common vital molecules present in various other living beings. The structures of the same kinds of proteins present not only in chimpanzees, but also in completely different living beings, are very similar to that in humans.
For example, the genetic analyses published in New Scientist have revealed a 75% similarity between the DNA’s of nematode worms and man. (New Scientist, 15 May 1999, p.27) This definitely does not mean that there is only a 25% difference between man and these worms!
Furthermore, the analyses done on some proteins have shown man as close to some very different living beings. In a survey carried out by the researchers at Cambridge University, some proteins of land dwelling animals were compared. Amazingly, in nearly all samples, man and chicken were paired as the closest relatives. The next closest relative was the crocodile. (New Scientist v.103, 16 August 1984, p.19)
Another example used by evolutionists on “the genetic similarity between man and ape”, is the presence of 48 chromosomes in chimpanzees and gorillas and 46 chromosomes in man. Evolutionists regard the closeness of the number of chromosomes as indication of an evolutionary relationship. However, if this logic were true, then man should have an even closer relative than the chimpanzee: the potato! The number of chromosomes in a potato is exactly equal to the number of chromosomes in a human: 46.
These examples show that genetic similarity does not constitute evidence for the theory of evolution. This is because the genetic similarities are not in line with the alleged evolution schemes and, on the contrary, they yield largely inconsistent results.
Not surprisingly, when the issue is evaluated as a whole, it is seen that the subject of “bio-chemical similarities” does not constitute evidence for evolution, but, on the contrary, leaves the theory in the lurch. Dr. Christian Schwabe, a biochemistry researcher from the Medical Faculty of South Carolina University, is an evolutionist scientist who has spent years trying to find evidence for evolution in the molecular domain. He particularly did research on insulin and relaxin-type proteins and tried to establish evolutionary relationships between living beings. However, he had to confess many a time that he could not find any evidence for evolution at any point in his studies. He said:
“Molecular evolution is about to be accepted as a method superior to paleontology for the discovery of evolutionary relationships. As a molecular evolutionist I should be elated. Instead, it seems disconcerting that many exceptions exist to the orderly progression of species as determined by molecular homologies; so many, in fact, that I think the exception, the quirks, may carry the more important message” (Christian Schwabe, “On the Validity of Molecular Evolution”, Trends in Biochemical Sciences. V.11, July 1986)
Based on the recent findings obtained in the field of molecular biology, the renowned biochemist Prof. Michael Denton made the following comments:
“Each class at molecular level is unique, isolated and unlinked by intermediates. Thus, molecules, like fossils, have failed to provide the elusive intermediates so long sought by evolutionary biology… At a molecular level, no organism is “ancestral” or “primitive” or “advanced” compared with its relatives… There is little doubt that if this molecular evidence had been available a century ago… the idea of organic evolution might never have been accepted.” (Michael Denton, Evolution; “A Theory in Crisis”, London; Burnett Books 1985 pp.290-291)
It is surely natural for the human body to bear some molecular similarities to other living beings because they are all made up of the same molecules; they all use the same water and atmosphere; and they all consume foods consisting of the same molecules. Certainly, their metabolisms, and therefore genetic make-up, would resemble one another. This, however, is not evidence that they evolved from a common ancestor.
This “common material” is not the result of evolution but of “common design”; that is, being created upon the same plan.
It is possible to explain this subject with an example. The majority of buildings are constructed with similar materials (brick, iron, cement, etc.). This, however, does not mean that these buildings “evolved” from each other. They are constructed separately by using common materials. The same is true of living beings as well.
Darwinists are distorting the results of the Human Genome Project. Life did not originate as a result of unconscious coincidences as evolution claims, but as the result of the creation of God, the Almighty, the Owner of infinite knowledge and wisdom.the islamreligion.com